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Introduction

References

Label Authors Title Source Year
1

References in context

  • The recent spread of bird flu across Asia and parts of Europe and the Middle East, as well as the occasional infections of humans with a disconcertingly high number of deaths, have caused worldwide concern about a potential new global epidemic of influenza.1 Are the ongoing outbreaks of avian flu indeed heralding the next pandemic?
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  • Influenza pandemics are the result of so-called antigenic shift of the virus (see Chapter 3).13 This means that a virus with a new HA (and NA) is introduced into the human population.
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World Health Organization. Avian influenza: assessing the pandemic threat. (www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/WHO_CDS_2005_29/en/) (2005) 2005
2

References in context

  • It occurs not only in occasional major pandemic outbreaks, but also in epidemics of variable severity almost every winter.2–4 The term “influenza” has been derived from the Italian influentia in the mid-1300s, indicating that, at the time, the illness was believed to result from astrological influences.
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KD Patterson. Pandemic and epidemic influenza, 1830–1848. Soc Sci Med 21 (1985) (571 - 580) 1985
3

References in context

  • It occurs not only in occasional major pandemic outbreaks, but also in epidemics of variable severity almost every winter.2–4 The term “influenza” has been derived from the Italian influentia in the mid-1300s, indicating that, at the time, the illness was believed to result from astrological influences.
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  • Since everyone will be immunologically naive to that new virus subtype, the infection may spread rapidly and cause high morbidity and mortality among the entire population, including young healthy people.3,14 Three major influenza pandemics struck the globe in the 20th century.3,4 The Spanish flu (caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus) occurred in 1918–19, after the First World War, and resulted in the death of an estimated 50 million people,14 more than the death toll of the war itself (Figure 2).
    Go to context

  • Since everyone will be immunologically naive to that new virus subtype, the infection may spread rapidly and cause high morbidity and mortality among the entire population, including young healthy people.3,14 Three major influenza pandemics struck the globe in the 20th century.3,4 The Spanish flu (caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus) occurred in 1918–19, after the First World War, and resulted in the death of an estimated 50 million people,14 more than the death toll of the war itself (Figure 2).
    Go to context

Y Ghendon. Introduction to pandemic influenza through history. Crossref. Eur J Epidemiol 10 (1994) (451 - 453) 1994
4

References in context

  • It occurs not only in occasional major pandemic outbreaks, but also in epidemics of variable severity almost every winter.2–4 The term “influenza” has been derived from the Italian influentia in the mid-1300s, indicating that, at the time, the illness was believed to result from astrological influences.
    Go to context

  • Since everyone will be immunologically naive to that new virus subtype, the infection may spread rapidly and cause high morbidity and mortality among the entire population, including young healthy people.3,14 Three major influenza pandemics struck the globe in the 20th century.3,4 The Spanish flu (caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus) occurred in 1918–19, after the First World War, and resulted in the death of an estimated 50 million people,14 more than the death toll of the war itself (Figure 2).
    Go to context

WI Beveridge. The chronicle of influenza epidemics. Hist Phil Life Sci 13 (1991) (223 - 234) 1991
5

References in context

  • Influenza, or simply “flu”, is caused by a virus.
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RE Shope. Swine influenza. III. Filtration experiments and etiology. J Exp Med 54 (1931) (373 - 380) 1931
6

References in context

  • Influenza, or simply “flu”, is caused by a virus.
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W Smith, C Andrewes, P Laidlaw. A virus obtained from influenza patients. Crossref. Lancet 2 (1933) (66 - 68) 1933
7

References in context

  • The burden of influenza for the society, not only from a clinical but also from an economic perspective, is often underestimated.7 This relates particularly to the recurring annual winter epidemics.
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  • Each year, influenza results in 3–5 million cases of severe illness and kills between 0.25 and 0.5 million people worldwide.7,29 The WHO estimates that there are currently 1 billion people worldwide who are at high risk of suffering or dying from influenza and its complications.29 Furthermore, as the elderly population increases, future influenza epidemics will be associated with ever-increasing hospitalization rates and excess mortality unless adequate prophylactic measures are taken.
    Go to context

  • Each year, influenza results in 3–5 million cases of severe illness and kills between 0.25 and 0.5 million people worldwide.7,29 The WHO estimates that there are currently 1 billion people worldwide who are at high risk of suffering or dying from influenza and its complications.29 Furthermore, as the elderly population increases, future influenza epidemics will be associated with ever-increasing hospitalization rates and excess mortality unless adequate prophylactic measures are taken.
    Go to context

  • As indicated above, the three major pandemic outbreaks of influenza in the 20th century have caused many millions of deaths, and future pandemics are also expected to have a devastating impact on society.32 Yet, it has been estimated that the cumulative mortality of annual influenza epidemics in the last century exceeded that of the three major pandemic outbreaks.7,33 This underscores the fact that not only influenza pandemics but also the recurrent annual outbreaks of flu remain a major health threat worldwide.
    Go to context

KG Nicholson, JM Wood, M Zambon. Influenza. Crossref. Lancet 362 (2003) (1733 - 1745) 2003
8

References in context

  • Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued guidelines for the implementation of influenza vaccination programmes in individual countries.8,9 As a result, many thousands of lives are saved worldwide each year.
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  • The WHO recommends annual vaccination of people in at-risk groups.8,9 The primary target groups for annual vaccination include the elderly, nursing-home residents, patients with chronic respiratory or cardiovascular disease, diabetes or renal dysfunction, as well as immunocompromised individuals.
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World Health Organization. Influenza vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 75 (2000) (281 - 288) (www.who.int/docstore/wer/pdf/2000/wer7535.pdf) 2000
9

References in context

  • Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued guidelines for the implementation of influenza vaccination programmes in individual countries.8,9 As a result, many thousands of lives are saved worldwide each year.
    Go to context

  • The WHO recommends annual vaccination of people in at-risk groups.8,9 The primary target groups for annual vaccination include the elderly, nursing-home residents, patients with chronic respiratory or cardiovascular disease, diabetes or renal dysfunction, as well as immunocompromised individuals.
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  • Go to context

World Health Organization. Influenza vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 77 (2002) (230 - 239) (www.who.int/docstore/wer/pdf/2002/wer7728.pdf) 2002
10

References in context

  • Yet, in many places, implementation of vaccination programmes remains woefully deficient.10,11 This implies that significant numbers of people at risk of the complications of influenza remain vulnerable to infection and possibly death.
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  • However, despite the established effectiveness of immunization, the national and international response to influenza prevention measures is often inadequate (see Chapter 8).
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The Macroepidemiology of Influenza Vaccination (MIV) Study Group. The macroepidemiology of influenza vaccination in 56 countries, 1997–2003. Vaccine 23 (2005) (5133 - 5143) 2005
11

References in context

  • Yet, in many places, implementation of vaccination programmes remains woefully deficient.10,11 This implies that significant numbers of people at risk of the complications of influenza remain vulnerable to infection and possibly death.
    Go to context

  • However, despite the established effectiveness of immunization, the national and international response to influenza prevention measures is often inadequate (see Chapter 8).
    Go to context

A Palache. Influenza vaccines. A reappraisal of their use. Crossref. Drugs 54 (1997) (841 - 856) 1997
12

References in context

  • Influenza virions are enveloped particles of spherical or elongated shape, measuring 80–120 nm in diameter and containing a segmented, single-stranded RNA genome (see Chapter 2).12,13 The influenza virus belongs to the family of the Orthomyxoviridae.
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  • There are many different influenza A virus subtypes, differing in the nature of the HA and NA glycoproteins on their surface.12,13 Sixteen HAs and nine NAs have been identified.
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RA Lamb, RM Krug. Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. DM Knipe, PM Howley, DE Griffin (Eds.) et al. Fields Virology 4th edn. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001) (1487 - 1531) 2001
13

References in context

  • Influenza virions are enveloped particles of spherical or elongated shape, measuring 80–120 nm in diameter and containing a segmented, single-stranded RNA genome (see Chapter 2).12,13 The influenza virus belongs to the family of the Orthomyxoviridae.
    Go to context

  • There are many different influenza A virus subtypes, differing in the nature of the HA and NA glycoproteins on their surface.12,13 Sixteen HAs and nine NAs have been identified.
    Go to context

  • Influenza pandemics are the result of so-called antigenic shift of the virus (see Chapter 3).13 This means that a virus with a new HA (and NA) is introduced into the human population.
    Go to context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

  • In addition to the emergence of new human influenza virus subtypes with pandemic potential, established human virus subtypes undergo significant antigenic adaptation, referred to as antigenic drift (see Chapter 3).13 Antigenic drift involves minor changes in the HA, NA and possibly also other viral antigens, that occur due to mutations in the viral genome, resulting in amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites.
    Go to context

PF Wright, RG Webster. Orthomyxoviruses. DM Knipe, PM Howley, DE Griffin (Eds.) et al. Fields Virology 4th edn. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001) (1533 - 1579) 2001
14

References in context

  • Since everyone will be immunologically naive to that new virus subtype, the infection may spread rapidly and cause high morbidity and mortality among the entire population, including young healthy people.3,14 Three major influenza pandemics struck the globe in the 20th century.3,4 The Spanish flu (caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus) occurred in 1918–19, after the First World War, and resulted in the death of an estimated 50 million people,14 more than the death toll of the war itself (Figure 2).
    Go to context

  • Since everyone will be immunologically naive to that new virus subtype, the infection may spread rapidly and cause high morbidity and mortality among the entire population, including young healthy people.3,14 Three major influenza pandemics struck the globe in the 20th century.3,4 The Spanish flu (caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus) occurred in 1918–19, after the First World War, and resulted in the death of an estimated 50 million people,14 more than the death toll of the war itself (Figure 2).
    Go to context

NP Johnson, J Mueller. Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918–1920 “Spanish” influenza pandemic. Crossref. Bull Hist Med 76 (2002) (105 - 115) 2002
15

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

K Subbarao, J Katz. Avian influenza viruses infecting humans. Crossref. Cell Molec Life Sci 57 (2000) (1770 - 1784) 2000
16

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

RG Webster. Influenza virus: transmission between species and relevance to emergence of the next human pandemic. Crossref. Arch Virol Suppl 13 (1997) (105 - 113) 1997
17

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

M Zambon. The pathogenesis of influenza in humans. Crossref. Rev Med Virol 11 (2001) (227 - 241) 2001
18

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

JK Taubenberger, AH Reid, RM Lourens, et al.. Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Crossref. Nature 437 (2005) (889 - 893) 2005
19

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

JK Taubenberger, DM Morens. 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics. Emerg Inf Dis 12 (2006) (15 - 22) 2006
20

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

EC Claas, AD Osterhaus, et al.. Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Crossref. Lancet 351 (1998) (472 - 477) 1998
21

References in context

  • The current information supports the concept that new pandemic influenza viruses are derived from avian virus reservoirs.13,15–17 Avian influenza viruses may be directly transmitted to humans, which probably occurred in the case of the 1918 Spanish flu virus.18,19 The possibility of direct transmission of an avian influenza virus to humans became evident for the first time during the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997.20,21 In this incident, 18 people were infected with the chicken flu virus, six of whom died.
    Go to context

K Subbarao, A Klimov, J Katz, et al.. Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Crossref. Science 279 (1998) (393 - 396) 1998
22

References in context

  • Similarly, in 2003, an outbreak of fowl plague (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands resulted in the direct transmission of the virus to poultry workers and veterinarians, killing one person.22 Furthermore, as of the end of 2003, continuing renewed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia, and more recently also in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, have resulted in an increasing number of human infections with a very high case-fatality rate,23–27 underscoring the disconcerting possibility that this virus may further adapt to the human host and thus cause a new deadly worldwide outbreak of influenza.
    Go to context

RAM Fouchier, PM Schneeberger, FW Rozendaal, et al.. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crossref. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (2004) (1356 - 1361) 2004
23

References in context

  • Similarly, in 2003, an outbreak of fowl plague (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands resulted in the direct transmission of the virus to poultry workers and veterinarians, killing one person.22 Furthermore, as of the end of 2003, continuing renewed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia, and more recently also in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, have resulted in an increasing number of human infections with a very high case-fatality rate,23–27 underscoring the disconcerting possibility that this virus may further adapt to the human host and thus cause a new deadly worldwide outbreak of influenza.
    Go to context

JS Peiris, WC Yu, CW Leung, et al.. Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease. Crossref. Lancet 363 (2004) (617 - 619) 2004
24

References in context

  • Similarly, in 2003, an outbreak of fowl plague (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands resulted in the direct transmission of the virus to poultry workers and veterinarians, killing one person.22 Furthermore, as of the end of 2003, continuing renewed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia, and more recently also in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, have resulted in an increasing number of human infections with a very high case-fatality rate,23–27 underscoring the disconcerting possibility that this virus may further adapt to the human host and thus cause a new deadly worldwide outbreak of influenza.
    Go to context

A Apisarnthanarak, R Kitphati, K Thongphubeth, et al.. Atypical avian influenza (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis 10 (2004) (1321 - 1324) 2004
25

References in context

  • Similarly, in 2003, an outbreak of fowl plague (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands resulted in the direct transmission of the virus to poultry workers and veterinarians, killing one person.22 Furthermore, as of the end of 2003, continuing renewed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia, and more recently also in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, have resulted in an increasing number of human infections with a very high case-fatality rate,23–27 underscoring the disconcerting possibility that this virus may further adapt to the human host and thus cause a new deadly worldwide outbreak of influenza.
    Go to context

MD de Jong, VC Bach, TQ Phan, et al.. Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. Crossref. New Engl J Med 352 (2005) (686 - 691) 2005
26

References in context

  • Similarly, in 2003, an outbreak of fowl plague (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands resulted in the direct transmission of the virus to poultry workers and veterinarians, killing one person.22 Furthermore, as of the end of 2003, continuing renewed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia, and more recently also in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, have resulted in an increasing number of human infections with a very high case-fatality rate,23–27 underscoring the disconcerting possibility that this virus may further adapt to the human host and thus cause a new deadly worldwide outbreak of influenza.
    Go to context

TH Tran, TL Nguyen, TD Nguyen, et al.. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. New Engl J Med 350 (2004) (1179 - 1188) 2004
27

References in context

  • Similarly, in 2003, an outbreak of fowl plague (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands resulted in the direct transmission of the virus to poultry workers and veterinarians, killing one person.22 Furthermore, as of the end of 2003, continuing renewed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia, and more recently also in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, have resulted in an increasing number of human infections with a very high case-fatality rate,23–27 underscoring the disconcerting possibility that this virus may further adapt to the human host and thus cause a new deadly worldwide outbreak of influenza.
    Go to context

  • During these ongoing H5N1 outbreaks, there have been 179 confirmed human infections (March 1, 2006), with a case-fatality rate of over 50%.27 Clearly, it is only a matter of time before another pandemic influenza virus will emerge.
    Go to context

World Health Organization. Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO. (www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/en/index.html)
28

References in context

  • Antigenic shift may also be due to a genetic reassortment between an avian and a human influenza virus, with pigs possibly acting as an intermediate host.
    Go to context

T Ito, JN Couceiro, S Kelm, et al.. Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J Virol 72 (1998) (7367 - 7373) 1998
29

References in context

  • Each year, influenza results in 3–5 million cases of severe illness and kills between 0.25 and 0.5 million people worldwide.7,29 The WHO estimates that there are currently 1 billion people worldwide who are at high risk of suffering or dying from influenza and its complications.29 Furthermore, as the elderly population increases, future influenza epidemics will be associated with ever-increasing hospitalization rates and excess mortality unless adequate prophylactic measures are taken.
    Go to context

  • Each year, influenza results in 3–5 million cases of severe illness and kills between 0.25 and 0.5 million people worldwide.7,29 The WHO estimates that there are currently 1 billion people worldwide who are at high risk of suffering or dying from influenza and its complications.29 Furthermore, as the elderly population increases, future influenza epidemics will be associated with ever-increasing hospitalization rates and excess mortality unless adequate prophylactic measures are taken.
    Go to context

  • However, despite the established effectiveness of immunization, the national and international response to influenza prevention measures is often inadequate (see Chapter 8).
    Go to context

  • However, despite the established effectiveness of immunization, the national and international response to influenza prevention measures is often inadequate (see Chapter 8).
    Go to context

  • In 2003, a resolution of the World Health Assembly urged member states to increase their efforts in the area of influenza prevention.29 In November 2005, during a large international meeting with participation of the WHO, the World Bank, the UN co-ordinator for pandemic preparedness and delegates from over 100 countries,35 there was broad consensus that the threat of a pandemic remains.
    Go to context

Influenza: Report by the WHO Secretariat for 111th session of the WHO Executive Board, January 2003. Document EB111/10 (WHO, November 2002) (www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB111/eeb11110.pdf) November 2002
30

References in context

  • Influenza epidemics have been recognized as a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality, especially in the very young, the very old, people with chronic cardiopulmonary conditions, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals (see Chapter 6).
    Go to context

WH Barker, JP Mullooly. Impact of epidemic type A influenza in a defined adult population. Am J Epidemiol 112 (1980) (798 - 811) 1980
31

References in context

  • Influenza epidemics have been recognized as a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality, especially in the very young, the very old, people with chronic cardiopulmonary conditions, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals (see Chapter 6).
    Go to context

MJ Sprenger, PG Mulder, WE Beyer, et al.. Impact of influenza on mortality in relation to age and underlying disease, 1967–1989. Int J Epidemiol 22 (1993) (334 - 340) 1993
32

References in context

  • As indicated above, the three major pandemic outbreaks of influenza in the 20th century have caused many millions of deaths, and future pandemics are also expected to have a devastating impact on society.32 Yet, it has been estimated that the cumulative mortality of annual influenza epidemics in the last century exceeded that of the three major pandemic outbreaks.7,33 This underscores the fact that not only influenza pandemics but also the recurrent annual outbreaks of flu remain a major health threat worldwide.
    Go to context

MI Meltzer, NJ Cox, K Fukuda. The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: priorities for intervention. Crossref. Emerg Infect Dis 5 (1999) (659 - 671) 1999
33

References in context

  • As indicated above, the three major pandemic outbreaks of influenza in the 20th century have caused many millions of deaths, and future pandemics are also expected to have a devastating impact on society.32 Yet, it has been estimated that the cumulative mortality of annual influenza epidemics in the last century exceeded that of the three major pandemic outbreaks.7,33 This underscores the fact that not only influenza pandemics but also the recurrent annual outbreaks of flu remain a major health threat worldwide.
    Go to context

L Simonson, MJ Clarke, GD Williamson, et al.. The impact of influenza epidemics on mortality: introducing a severity index. Am J Public Health 87 (1997) (1944 - 1950) 1997
34

References in context

  • The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines have been clearly demonstrated.34 For example, vaccination of community-dwelling senior citizens reduces hospitalization rates for pneumonia or other respiratory conditions by >30% and death from all causes by 50%.
    Go to context

KL Nichol. The efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inactivated influenza virus vaccines. Crossref. Vaccine 21 (2003) (1769 - 1775) 2003
35

References in context

  • In 2003, a resolution of the World Health Assembly urged member states to increase their efforts in the area of influenza prevention.29 In November 2005, during a large international meeting with participation of the WHO, the World Bank, the UN co-ordinator for pandemic preparedness and delegates from over 100 countries,35 there was broad consensus that the threat of a pandemic remains.
    Go to context

World Health Organization. Avian influenza and human pandemic influenza. Summary report of meeting held in Geneva. (www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2005/avian_influenza/summary_report_Nov_2005_meeting.pdf) (7–9 November 2005) 79 November 2005
36

References in context

  • For example, in the current situation, no country will have vaccines at the start of the pandemic and production of significant quantities of vaccine will take many months after the first detection of the new pandemic virus36 (see also Chapter 9).
    Go to context

CJ Luke, K Subbarao. Vaccines for pandemic influenza. Crossref. Emerg Inf Dis 12 (2006) (66 - 72) 2006
37

References in context

  • There are also concerns about the efficacy of antivirals for both treatment and prophylaxis in the setting of a pandemic, which may thwart antiviral stockpiling strategies37 (see also Chapter 7).
    Go to context

A Monto. Vaccine and antiviral drugs in pandemic preparedness. Crossref. Emerg Inf Dis 12 (2006) (55 - 60) 2006

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