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Social and Economic Impact of Influenza

Table 8 Estimated annual influenza deaths rates per 100,000 in the USA (1990–1999). source: Reproduced from Thompson WW et al . Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA ; 289 : 179–186 3 x WW Thompson, DK Shay, E Weintraub, et al.. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. J Am Med Assoc 289 (2003) (179 - 186) Crossref. with permission from the American Medical Association.

Estimated annual influenza deaths rates per 100,000 in the USA (1990–1999)
Season A/H1N1 A/H3N2 B Total
1990–1991 0.79 2.41 7.00 10.20
1991–1992 2.57 18.11 0.22 20.90
1992–1993 0.46 7.75 7.42 15.64
1993–1994 0.07 18.88 0.16 19.10
1994–1995 0.22 12.91 2.72 15.85
1995–1996 5.58 8.94 2.84 17.36
1996–1997 0.00 20.98 4.73 25.71
1997–1998 0.02 26.27 0.24 26.54
1998–1999 0.11 20.39 3.57 24.07
Mean 1.09 15.18 3.21 19.49

References in context

Table 9 Estimated averages of annual excess morbidity and mortality in Europe during influenza epidemics. The numbers are extrapolated from the current USA estimates of 120 excess deaths and 670 excess hospitalizations per million population. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Key facts about influenza and the influenza vaccine. ( http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm ) 4 x Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Key Facts about Influenza and Influenza Vaccine. (www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm)

Estimated averages of annual excess morbidity and mortality in Europe during influenza epidemics
Country Inhabitants (millions) Excess deaths Excess hospitalizations
France 60.5 7260 40,535
Germany 82.7 9924 55,409
Netherlands 16.3 1956 10,921
Spain 43.1 5172 28,877
Greece 11.1 1332 7437
Italy 58.1 6972 38,927
UK 59.7 7164 39,999
Sweden 9.0 1080 6030
Ukraine 46.5 5580 31,155
Poland 38.5 4620 25,795

References in context

  • The influenza attack rate varies from year to year as does the virus strain.
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Table 10 Influenza-related health-care interventions among children. source: Reproduced from Neuzil KM et al . The burden of influenza illness in children with asthma and other chronic medical conditions. J Pediatr 2000; 137 : 856–864 8 x KM Neuzil, PF Wright, EF Mitchel, MR Griffin. The burden of influenza illness in children with asthma and other chronic medical conditions. J Pediatr 137 (2000) (856 - 864) Crossref. with permission from Elsevier.

Influenza-related health-care interventions among children
Excess number per 1000 children
Hospitalizations for children:
  • <1 year of age
19
  • 1 to ≤ 3 years of age
8
  • Outpatient visits
200
  • Courses of antibiotic therapy
140

References in context

  • As with the elderly, a chronic underlying medical condition adds to the risk.
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Table 11 Estimated cost of an influenza epidemic in France in 1989. source: Adapted from Levy E. French economic evaluations of influenza and influenza vaccination. Pharmacoeconomics 1996; 9 (Suppl 3): 62–66 9 x E Levy. French economic evaluations of influenza and influenza vaccination. Pharmacoeconomics 9 (Suppl 3) (1996) (62 - 66) Crossref. with permission from Adis International.

Estimated cost of an influenza epidemic in France in 1989
1989 (French francs, millions) 2005 equivalent (&z.euro;, millions)
Costs National health insurance system Society National health insurance system Society
Direct medical costs
 • GP visits 363.95 494.20 423.93 575.65
 • Medication 350.69 637.61 408.49 742.70
 • Hospitalizations 92.39 115.49 107.62 134.52
Total direct medical costs 807.03 1247.31 940.04 1452.87
Indirect costs
 Cost of absenteeism and loss of productivity 1121.30 13,076.00 1306.10 15,231.11
Total costs 1928.33 14,323.31 2246.14 16,683.98

References in context

Table 12 Estimated socio-economic burden of a future influenza pandemic in the USA. source: Data derived from Meltzer MI et al . The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: priorities for intervention. Emerg Infect Dis 1999; 5 : 657–671. 28 x MI Meltzer, NJ Cox, K Fukuda. The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: priorities for intervention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 5 (1999) (657 - 671) Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/meltzer.htm

Estimated socio-economic burden of a future influenza pandemic in the USA
Clinical event Numbers affected
Deaths 89,000–207,000
Hospitalizations 314,000–734,000
Outpatient visits 18–42 million
Additional illnesses 20–47 million

References in context


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